Acid Free – Materials with a pH above 7.0 as defined in chemistry. Often used INCORRECTLY as a synonym for lignin free or acid-buffered materials.
Anti-Reflective Glazing – Glazing with carefully deposited coatings of transparent combinations of metallic oxides and silicates to transform the phase of the outgoing reflected light so that it cancels out incoming light. This is different from non-glare glazing technology (see Non-Glare Glazing).
Artist Proof – Additional proofs not included in the regular edition, pulled for the artist’s approval usually bears the designation A/P
Aquatint – A form of etching consisting of tiny dots of ink, creating a grandular effect. Created by the use of a porous ground that allows acid to penetrate, to form a network of ting dots in the plate.
Bon-à-tirer – A final proof of a print signifying a right-to-print agreement between artist and printer. The print becomes the standard for the edition.
Buffer/Buffering – The addition of alkaline substances during the papermaking process to counteract the effect of acidic contamination.
Canvas Transfer – A process that simulates a painting on canvas. The printed image or photo is coated with a laminate, stripped from its original backing or support structure into a shear decal and applied to a canvas surface.
Edition – The authorized number of impressions made from a single image, including all numbered prints and proofs. A limited edition has a specified number noted on the impression.
Encaustic – The technique of painting with colors in hot wax. When completed, a heat source is passed above the painting to provide exactly enough heat to fuse the colors together without running.
Engraving – An intaglio process in which lines are cut into a metal plate and then filled with ink. The surface is wiped clean, leaving ink in the cut lines. A press is used to transfer the image to paper.
Etching – An intaglio process in which an image is scratched through an acid-resistant coating on a metal plate. The plate is then immersed in an acid bath causing the exposed areas to be eaten away. The plate is wiped clean and inked. Excess ink is wiped away and a press is used to transfer the image to paper.
Foxing – Reddish-brown spots in paper which have discolored as they age. They may be related to impurities in the paper, such as mold. High relative humidity is needed to initiate their appearance.
Fugitive – Inherently unstable materials; media that easily fade when exposed to light. However, some media will fade without exposure to light.
Giclée – Derived from the French word gicler meaning “to squirt” or “to spray”. The use of the inkjet process to make fine art prints.
Glazing – A transparent material between the environment and the work of art, such as glass or acrylic sheet.
Graphic Arts – Generally refers to the arts of drawing and printmaking. Various media are used.
Impasto – A thick application of paint that creates heavy texture using a palette knife, painting knife or brush.
Inkjet Printing – A group of dot matrix printing technologies, such as thermal, piezo, phase change and continuous flow in which electrically charged droplets of ink are projected onto the paper or canvas.
Intaglio – A term that includes all metal plate engraving and etching processes in which printing areas are recessed, such as engraving, etching, drypoint and aquatint.
Lignin Free – Organic alpha cellouse fibers either inherently lignin free or processed to remove lignin.
Limited Edition – A work that is reproduced in a specified number of copies.
Lithograph / Lithography – The traditional planographic (printing from a flat surface) printing method that involves drawing or painting with greasy crayons or inks on a limestone block or metal plate. Metal plates can be made by a photomechanical process.
Master Certified Picture Framer MCPFA – Certification Mark of the Professional Picture Framers Association, to be used by authorized persons, certifying that the person displaying the mark has completed the examinations administrated by the PPFA in a satisfactory manner and has agreed to adhere to the continuing education and other post-certification requirements.
Mezzotint – An intaglio process in which the plate surface is roughened and then an image is created by smoothing the areas to be printed. Mezzotints are characterized by a rich velvet overall appearance with numerous tonal ranges.
Monoprint – A combination of monotype and traditional printing methods. A number of prints may be pulled from a single plate, but with no attempt to print any two the same way.
Monotype – A one-of-a-kind print made by painting on a smooth metal, glass or stone plate and then printing on paper. The pressure of printing creates a texture not possible when painting directly on paper.
Non-Glare Glazing – Glazing that has been etched or embossed on one or both sides. This diffuses the light, changes reflection and reduces glare. Increased distance from the artwork results in increased loss of sharpness of the image.
Offset Lithography – A printing process whereby an image is photographically transferred to a thin paper, plastic or metal sheet.
Photo-lithography – A printing technique in which a negative is exposed to a photo-sensitized lithographic plate. The image is then developed on the plate.
Preservation Framing – Designates the use of materials and procedures that do not alter the condition of the item, protects the item from anticipated hazards, and is completely reversible without the use of invasive techniques
Reprint/Restrike – Produced after the original edition was issued and from the original plates. Often made after the artist’s death.
Serigraph/Silkscreen – A stencil process of printing in which a cloth is stretched over a heavy frame and the design is painted by tusche (grease like liquid or crayon) or affixed by stencil. It is printed by hand-pulling a squeegee to force the paint through the pores of the fabric in areas not blocked out.
UV Glazing – Glass or acrylic that has been manufactured to filter 98% or more of a specific range of ultraviolet light.